Let Down - More
blueoval57 at VERIZON.NET
Tue Mar 13 08:57:26 MDT 2007
Cuban-style clinics may be a model for U.S.
By JOHN DORSCHNER
At the new Leon Medical Center in Hialeah, a white-gloved and uniformed
doorman welcomes seniors in front of bubbling waterfalls. Inside, along
with marbled restrooms, seniors get free dental and vision care -- care
that regular Medicare recipients must pay for themselves.
In Westchester, at a CAC Florida clinic, seniors are participating in free
exercise classes, playing dominoes and competing in bingo tournaments, as
well as getting free coffee and breakfast pastries.
In both places, everything is paid for by taxpayer dollars.
Most importantly, in these clinics and others like them, seniors get easy
access to primary care physicians -- care intended to stop conditions from
getting serious so that patients can avoid aggravating and expensive trips
to the emergency room.
These clinics, which trace their roots to pre-Castro Cuba, could well be a
vision of the future of healthcare in America. ''This is a very good
model,'' says Steven Ullmann, a healthcare economist at the University of
Seniors tend to love the places. ''I feel good here,'' says Gerardo
Gonzalez, 78, who went to the CAC clinic in Westchester one recent morning
for a blood test and stayed to play dominoes. ``I feel at home.''
PLANS TO FRANCHISE
So far the clinics, true to their Cuban origins, have focused primarily on
Hispanic areas, but that's changing. CAC plans to expand into Liberty City
within the next year, and Benjamín León Jr., CEO and founder of Leon
Medical Centers, says he's thinking of franchising his concept after
getting inquiries from entrepreneurs in Arkansas, New Jersey and Puerto Rico.
Some experts argue that the clinics are good only because the Bush
administration has put massive amounts of federal funding into the Medicare
HMOs that these clinics depend on -- a push to shift a government program
to for-profit corporations, on the theory that the private sector can do a
better job managing money than can Washington bureaucrats.
''They've thrown a lot of money at this,'' says Robert Berenson, a
healthcare specialist with the Urban Institute. It used to be a Medicare
HMO received 95 percent of what a senior in a given area would be expected
to cost each year. Now, it's 102 to 112 percent of expected traditional
costs, says Berenson.
As Dartmouth researchers and others have shown, the average senior in Miami
costs Medicare about twice as much per year as a senior in Minneapolis.
Because of that, the government reimburses HMOs in South Florida far more
than most other places. An HMO in Miami-Dade gets $1,199 a month for each
senior it signs up. In Broward, it's $1,026. In Minneapolis-St. Paul, an
HMO gets $732 a month per member, according to a Medicare database provided
by spokeswoman Sharon Fisher.
Over a year, that means a South Florida HMO gets up to an additional $5,600
to spend on each senior -- and that's why it can lavish extra benefits on
Not surprisingly, seniors love those benefits. Put that together with a
strong Hispanic tradition of using clinics and it means almost half of
Miami-Dade seniors -- 48 percent -- are in HMOs. In Broward, it's 43
percent. Both counties are more than double the national average of 19
This is such a lucrative field in South Florida that national players are
getting involved. Humana has purchased the CAC clinics, and Goldman Sachs,
the New York investment group, recently purchased a controlling interest in
MCCI Medical Group, a local firm with clinics throughout South Florida,
according to Bruce March, a Greenberg Traurig attorney who helped broker
ContinuCare, with healthcare entrepreneur Phillip Frost as its main
investor, has 15 primary-care clinics in Miami-Dade and Broward serving a
broad range of patients. Chief Executive Richard Pfenniger Jr. says that
facilities in Hispanic areas will offer the coffee and ''social-related
activities'' that the competition offers.
Mike Fernandez, a Coral Gables entrepreneur who helped develop the CAC
model, says that the Cuban-style clinics will prosper even without boosted
funding from Washington because they're able to provide more value at lower
cost. ``Historically, these clinics have provided way beyond what anyone
else was offering.''
UM's Ullmann says the clinics prosper because of two keys: ``First, they're
culturally sensitive, and second they have a focus on primary care.''
The clinics emphasize a ''warm and friendly'' atmosphere, says Fernandez,
with service reps hovering to help patients negotiate the system. The CAC
Westchester clinic even puts photos on the walls of patients' recent
birthday parties, and service is extensive. Many clinics are open 7 a.m. to
5 p.m. weekdays and Saturday mornings.
Still, the core is primary care. Elders tend to have a lot of aches and
pains, and a good many of them are worriers. ''They love to see their
doctor,'' says Ausberto Bianchi, the physician-in-charge at CAC's
The clinics don't try to limit those visits. ''Why do that?'' asks León.
``If they can't see their doctor, they'll just go to the ER.''
Most clinics bring in specialists on certain days of the week, but the
primary physician recommends a specialist only when he or she feels there's
a particular need.
Barbara Starfield, a Johns Hopkins professor, says a key reason why
Europeans tend to live longer than Americans but spend only half the
healthcare dollars is that in most European countries, about half the
doctors are devoted to primary care, while only a third are in America.
Primary physicians tend to do a better job treating basic ailments, her
research found, at much lower cost.
The Dartmouth studies show specialists drive up costs. South Florida has 45
percent more specialists per 100,000 residents than does Minneapolis - and
about 20 percent more than the national average. Specialists tend to bounce
patients between each other -- the gastroenterologist sends someone with
backache to an orthopedist -- at much higher per hour charges than primary
care doctors charge. And each specialist is likely to conduct his own
tests. The average senior with traditional Medicare in Miami gets about
twice as many lab tests a year as a senior in Minneapolis.
LESS TIME IN THE E.R.
In the clinics, all test results are centralized with the primary doctor,
and so there is virtually no repetition.
The clinics don't directly discourage trips to emergency rooms, but they do
work hard to make it easier for patients to get quick care at the clinic.
Leon has a 24-hour hotline that seniors can call to ask whether a condition
is serious enough to warrant an ER trip. CAC Westchester has a walk-in
urgent care center with long hours.
Leon's new facility in Hialeah even has a quasi-ER, where there are 10 beds
separated by curtains. Benjamín León III insists this isn't meant to
replace the ER, but offers a place for ailing seniors to lay down as they
wait to see their doctor.
Some are suspicious about the clinics' motives, because they're for-profit
companies trying to maximize returns, which can be done by keeping costs low.
Ullmann of UM doesn't think that should deter patients. If one clinic
doesn't treat them well, they can switch to another -- just like most
American consumers do in other matters. ``You're looking for value at a
good cost. Why is that any different than picking a Dell or a Gateway?''
Ironically, a critic of the for-profit HMOs is a conservative, Michael F.
Cannon, a scholar with the Cato Institute and author of Healthy Competition.
Cannon points out that with the HMO, the customer still can't control his
healthcare dollars and, like many liberals, he wonders whether the Medicare
HMOs are ''cherry-picking'' their customers.
That's against federal law, but there are subtle ways to do it, and Cannon
wonders if CAC's wellness programs -- offering daily exercise classes --
attract the most active and healthiest seniors, while the sickest tend to
stay with traditional care, so they can see the specialists and get the
customized treatment they feel they need.
''This is called screening,'' he says.
In fact, CAC's social and wellness programs are the one major difference
between it and Leon.
BODY, MIND AND SPIRIT
CAC provides many daily social events, including English classes, and those
who do the morning exercises are rewarded with a free lunch. CAC execs say
exercise classes keep seniors fit -- and means they're less likely to need
expensive trips to ERs.
''But there's also the mental health aspect,'' says Hilda Lago, a CAC
administrator. The senior sitting at home, often alone, has time to dwell
on aches and pains, while going to a center to be with others can brighten
''Every day I come here,'' says Emma Rodriguez, 75, a regular at a CAC
exercise class. ``That's better for me.''
León Jr. says his clinics offer no exercise or dominoes -- and never will.
``We take the dollars and put them into healthcare.''
When Fernandez, a creator of the CAC dominoes-bingo style, heard that
comment, he thought of the Leon clinics elaborate entrances and responded:
``Well, healthcare -- and waterfalls.''
Leon says Congressmen from around the country have visited his centers,
wondering if they can serve as a national model.
UM's Ullmann doesn't see why not. ''If they put one in Chinatown in San
Francisco, they'd have to be sensitive to different cultural needs, but the
basic model'' -- personal attention and strong primary care -- ``would work
just as well.''
© 2007 Miami Herald Media Company. All Rights Reserved.
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